Indexed on: 15 Aug '06Published on: 15 Aug '06Published in: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with both dosages of NAA, whereas the SOD activity in the erythrocytes, liver, and heart was either significantly decreased or not changed with two doses of 2,4-D and TIBA. Although the CAT activity significantly increased in the erythrocyte and brain of rats treated with both doses of PGRs, it was not changed in the liver, heart, and kidney. Meanwhile, the ancillary enzyme GR activity significantly increased in the brain, heart, and liver but decreased in the erythrocyte and kidney of rats treated with both doses of PGRs. The drug-metabolizing enzyme GST activity significantly increased in the heart and kidney but decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs. As a conclusion, the results indicate that PGRs might affect antioxidant potential enzymes, the activity of hepatic damage enzymes, and lipid peroxidation dose independently. Also, the rats resisted to oxidative stress via antioxidant mechanism but the antioxidant mechanism could not prevent the increases in lipid peroxidation in rat's tissues. These data, along with the determined changes, suggest that PGRs produced substantial systemic organ toxicity in the erythrocyte, liver, brain, heart, and kidney during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure.