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Influence of pre-eclampsia on fetal growth.

Research paper by R R Xiao, T K TK Sorensen, M A MA Williams, D A DA Luthy

Indexed on: 25 Jun '03Published on: 25 Jun '03Published in: The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians



Abstract

We examined the effect of pre-eclampsia on fetal growth in a cohort of pregnant women delivering singleton infants.Analyses were restricted to 155 women with pre-eclampsia and 5570 normotensive women. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for confounders. We estimated ORs for very low birth weight (VLBW; < 1500 g), low birth weight (LBW; < 2500 g), and small for gestational age (SGA; weight < or = 10th centile by each gestational age, race, sex and parity strata) in relation to maternal pre-eclampsia status.After adjusting for maternal age, race, smoking, Medicaid status and gestational age, the OR for VLBW was 30.7 (95% CI 7.0-134.9). Pre-eclampsia was associated with a 3.8-fold increased risk of LBW (95% CI 1.9-7.5). Women with pre-eclampsia were 3.6 times more likely to deliver an SGA newborn as compared with normotensive women (95% CI 2.3-5.7). Advanced maternal age, African-American race, parity or smoking status did not modify the associations of pre-eclampsia with LBW and SGA.Our results are consistent with other reports that have documented a strong relationship between pre-eclampsia and restricted fetal growth. Further, our results expand the literature by documenting a particularly strong association between pre-eclampsia and VLBW. However, our findings regarding the relationship between pre-eclampsia and fetal growth may be confounded by unmeasured factors including maternal weight prior to pregnancy and pregnancy weight gain.