Influence of educational status on executive function and functional balance in individuals with Parkinson disease.

Research paper by Carolina de Oliveira Cde O Souza, Mariana Callil MC Voos, Débora Valente DV Francato, Hsin Fen HF Chien, Egberto Reis ER Barbosa

Indexed on: 30 Mar '13Published on: 30 Mar '13Published in: Cognitive and behavioral neurology : official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology


This study investigated whether educational status influenced how people with Parkinson disease (PD) performed on Parts A, B, and DELTA of the Trail Making Test (TMT) and on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS).Recent studies have shown that educational status may influence cognitive and motor test performance.We gave the TMT and the BBS to assess executive function and functional balance in 28 people with PD (Hoehn and Yahr score between 2 and 3) and 30 healthy elderly people. Participants reported their number of years of formal education. We divided each group of participants by educational status: low (4 to 10 years of education) or high (≥11 years).In both the PD (P=0.018) and control (P=0.003) groups, participants with low educational status performed worse on the TMT Part B than did those with high educational status. Within the PD group, the less-educated participants scored worse on the BBS than did the more educated (P<0.001); this difference was not significant between the more- and less-educated controls (P=0.976).Whether or not they had PD, less-educated people performed worse than more-educated people on the TMT Part B. Educational status affected executive function, but PD status did not. Among individuals with PD, educational status influenced functional balance.