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Incidence of post transplant myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with Hodgkin's disease patients undergoing autologous transplantation following cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV).

Research paper by C C Wheeler, A A Khurshid, J J Ibrahim, A A Elias, P P Mauch, K K Ault, J J Antin

Indexed on: 28 Jun '01Published on: 28 Jun '01Published in: Leukemia & lymphoma



Abstract

Secondary malignancies, particularly myelodysplasia (MDS), are serious events following high dose therapy with autologous stem cell support. We observed a higher frequency of secondary malignancies in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) than in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing high dose therapy with the same non-TBI conditioning regimen. Three hundred patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were treated with cyclophosphamide, carmustine and etoposide and autologous stem cell support from 1986 through 1994. Median follow up of survivors is 3.9 years. Five-year survival is 51% for HD and 48% for NHL. Eleven patients developed second malignancies (9/150 treated for HD vs. 2/150 treated for NHL) a median of 2.4 years from transplantation and 5.2 years from initial diagnosis. Six patients had myelodysplasia or acute leukemia (MDS/AML) and 5 had lymphomas or solid tumors. Actuarial risk of MDS/AML at five years for patients transplanted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is 3% (95% CI 0.6-9.6%). HD patients had significantly different pretreatment characteristics than patients with NHL. A Cox model showed that greater number of prior relapses and prior radiation therapy were significant risk factors for the development of MDS/AML. These data suggest that CBV is associated with a lower risk of secondary MDS/AML than TBI containing regimens and that much of the risk is associated with the pre-transplantation therapy. The use of autotransplantation early in the course of therapy for relapsed lymphoma might prevent some cases of MDS/AML.