Indexed on: 28 Jan '16Published on: 28 Jan '16Published in: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological features of four cases of severe vancomycin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in which the vancomycin non-susceptibility development and daptomycin resistance occurred under therapy with teicoplanin (three cases) and daptomycin switched to vancomycin (one case). Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. On nine clinical epidemiologically unrelated daptomycin-susceptible (DAP-S) and daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) MRSA, we performed: (i) DAP-VAN-TEC-CFX-RIF minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); (ii) glycopeptide resistance detection (GRD) by δ-hemolysis; (iii) glycopeptide population analysis; (iv) molecular characterization by PFGE-MLST-SCCmec-agr-typing; (v) rpoB and mprF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); (vi) dltA-mprF-atl-sceD expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three out of the four patients did not survive despite salvage treatment; two died with active MRSA infection and one died because of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia sepsis. The fourth patient, in which a reversion to a DAP-S phenotype occurred, survived with daptomycin plus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and oxacillin treatment, and endovascular device removal. Daptomycin resistance development was preceded by a stable heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) or VISA phenotype acquisition, while in one case, daptomycin resistance was preceded by an unstable daptomycin heteroresistance (hDAP) behavior reverting to DAP-S during vancomycin plus rifampin therapy followed by high doses of daptomycin. All DAP-R strains showed hVISA or DAP-R traits, including mutations and/or up-regulation of genes involved in cell wall turnover and cell membrane perturbation. In our study, daptomycin resistance arose during glycopeptide therapy. The emergence of DAP-R isolates was preceded by a stable VISA or hVISA phenotype or by instability reverting to a DAP-S heteroresistant phenotype. Daptomycin, as first-line therapy for the treatment of severe MRSA infections, should be used at optimal dosage combined with other agents such as beta-lactams, to prevent daptomycin resistance occurrence.