Indexed on: 23 Oct '15Published on: 23 Oct '15Published in: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
High-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are obtained through optimization of the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 nanocrystals on mesoporous TiO2 film, using a two-step sequential deposition process by first spin-coating a PbI2 film and then submerging it into CH3NH3I solution for perovskite conversion (PbI2 + CH3NH3I → CH3NH3PbI3). It is found that the PbI2 morphology from different film formation process (thermal drying, solvent extraction, and as-deposited) has a profound effect on the CH3NH3PbI3 active layer formation and its nanocrystalline composition. The residual PbI2 in the active layer contributes to substantial photocurrent losses, thus resulting in low and inconsistent PSC performances. The PbI2 film dried by solvent extraction shows enhanced CH3NH3PbI3 conversion as the loosely packed disk-like PbI2 crystals allow better CH3NH3I penetration and reaction in comparison to the multicrystal aggregates that are commonly obtained in the thermally dried PbI2 film. The as-deposited PbI2 wet film, without any further drying, exhibits complete conversion to CH3NH3PbI3 in MAI solution. The resulting PSCs reveal high power conversion efficiency of 15.60% with a batch-to-batch consistency of 14.60 ± 0.55%, whereas a lower efficiency of 13.80% with a poorer consistency of 11.20 ± 3.10% are obtained from the PSCs using thermally dried PbI2 films.