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Impact of Obesity on Outcomes of Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis Who Underwent Hip Arthroplasty.

Research paper by Hafeez H Shaka, Pius E PE Ojemolon

Indexed on: 14 Nov '20Published on: 13 Nov '20Published in: Cureus



Abstract

Background While obesity has been clearly established as a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), there is a scarcity of studies comparing outcomes between obese and non-obese patients with hip OA who underwent hip arthroplasty. Methods This study involved adults with hip OA who had hip replacement procedures. Data was sourced from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for 2016 and 2017. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes included the development of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), sepsis, post-procedure site infection, pneumonia, acute kidney failure, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, need for transfusion of blood products, complications involving orthopedic devices as well as mean length of hospitalization and mean total hospital charges. Results Obese patients did not have higher odds of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.65, 95% CI 0.303-1.381, p=0.260), had increased mean length of hospitalization (0.11, 95% CI 0.083-0.134, p<0.001) and higher odds of developing DVT (aOR: 1.62, 95% CI 1.187-2.222, p<0.001), acute kidney failure (aOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.488-1.807, p<0.001) and pressure-related injuries (aOR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.081-2.483, p=0.020), compared with non-obese patients. Obese patients were found to have a lower aOR of having NSTEMI (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.332-0.986, p=0.044), and need for blood product transfusion (aOR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.726-0.875, p<0.001). Conclusion Although there is no difference in mortality among obese and non-obese patients who had hip arthroplasty, obese adults have increased odds of morbidity and perioperative complications. Hence, obese adults likely require better perioperative management to decrease the incidence of these complications. Copyright © 2020, Shaka et al.