Impact of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis on infectious-related outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Research paper by Amber B AB Clemmons, Arpita S AS Gandhi, Benjamin B Albrecht, Stephanie S Jacobson, Jeremy J Pantin

Indexed on: 24 Oct '17Published on: 24 Oct '17Published in: Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners


Background Patients immediately post-hematopoietic cell transplantation are at high risk for bacteremia. Judicious prophylactic antimicrobial utilization must balance anticipated benefits (reduction infections) versus risk (bacterial resistance, Clostridium difficile) . Objective To compare infectious outcomes (primary: incidence bacteremia; secondary: febrile neutropenia, C. difficile, susceptibility of bacteremia, time to discharge and 30-day mortality) between hematopoietic cell transplantation who received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to those who did not. Methods A local institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted on all hematopoietic cell transplantation patients ( n = 171) comparing those who received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis ( n = 105) to those who did not ( n = 66). Data included infectious outcomes and mortality for the first 30 days post-hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chi-squared was performed for categorical variables (GraphPad Software Inc., 2015). Secondary analysis compared outcomes within autologous and allogeneic sub-groups. Results Bacteremia was significantly lower for the overall cohort receiving fluoroquinolone (median duration eight days) versus those without fluoroquinolone (15.2% vs. 31.8%; P < 0.01). No difference was seen in C. difficile infection ( P = 0.81) or 30-day mortality (2.9% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.67). In the autologous sub-group ( n = 115), bacteremia was significantly lower in the fluoroquinolone cohort (8.5% vs. 27.3%; P = 0.0069), while no differences were seen in C. difficile infection ( P = 1) or 30-day mortality ( P = 1). In the allogeneic sub-group ( n = 56), there was no difference between those with and without fluoroquinolone in bacteremia (29.4% vs. 40.9%; P = 0.4) or C. difficile ( P = 0.72); however, there was a trend toward improved 30-day mortality (2.9% vs. 9.1%; P = 0.55). Conclusions Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis reduces incidence of bacteremia in autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation without increasing C. difficile after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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