Indexed on: 21 Aug '15Published on: 21 Aug '15Published in: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
TreatingPSS (Clevios) with certain additives, such as ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sorbitol, has been shown to increase the conductivity of this material from roughly 1 to nearly 1000 S/cm. Using a slow drying method, we show that the additive induced a separation between free PSS and reorganizedPSS complexes in the highly conductivePSS films. Additives (DMSO, DEG, and PEG 400) were included inPSS aqueous dispersions at large volume fractions. The mixtures were slowly dried under room conditions. During drying, the evaporation of water resulted in an additive-rich solvent mixture from which the reorganizedPSS complexes aggregated into a dense film while free PSS remained in the solution. Upon complete drying, PSS formed a transparent rim film around the conducting PEDOT film. The chemical compositions of the two phases were studied using an infrared microscope. This removal of PSS resulted in more compact packing of PEDOT molecules, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope measurements suggested the enrichment of PEDOT on the film surface after PSS separation. Through a simple drying process in an additive-containing dispersion, the conductivity of PEDOT films increased from 0.1 to 200-400 S/cm. Through this method, we confirmed the existence of two phases in additive-treated and highly conductivePSS films. The proper separation between PSS and PEDOT will be of relevance in designing strategies to process high-performance plastic electrodes.