Indexed on: 31 Jul '19Published on: 17 Apr '19Published in: Cytokine
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of death mainly due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Early risk identification may allow interventions and prevention of fatal events. The study aim was to assess the usefulness of selected CVD biomarkers as predictors of 5-year mortality in patients with different CKD stages. Study included 57 CKD patients: 38 in stage 5 (ESRD), 19 in stage 3 and 4 (CKD3-4), and 19 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained once to measure fetuin A, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), intracellular-1 (ICAM1) and vascular-1 (VCAM1) adhesion molecules (ELISA or Luminex platform). Computed tomography was performed to assess the calcium score (CS). Patients were prospectively followed for 5 years to evaluate their all-cause mortality. Serum VCAM1, TNF and IL-6 were significantly higher in more advanced CKD stages. VCAM1 correlated significantly with ICAM1, TNF and IL-6. TNF and IL-6 were also significantly correlated with each other. No significant changes were detected for other markers. IL-6 correlated significantly with CS, age, renal function and CRP. Elevated CS and IL-6 increased over 3 times the 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in patients with CKD or ESRD at baseline. IL-6 and CS were significantly associated with 5-year risk of all-cause mortality in CKD patients. Our study suggests an involvement of chronic inflammation linked to coronary artery calcification that is likely to contribute to the cardiovascular mortality in patients with impaired renal function. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.