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Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in the United States: Demographic and Socioeconomic Disparities.

Research paper by Arash A Ghaffari-Rafi, Rana R Mehdizadeh, Andrew Wai Kei AWK Ko, Shadeh S Ghaffari-Rafi, Jose J Leon-Rojas

Indexed on: 06 Oct '20Published on: 06 Oct '20Published in: Frontiers in neurology



Abstract

Obesity's risk increases for low-income, female, young, and Black patients. By extrapolation, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)-a disease associated with body mass index-would potentially display socioeconomic and demographic disparities. IIH incidence (per 100,000) was investigated with respect to sex, age, income, residence, and race/ethnicity, by querying the largest United States (US) healthcare administrative dataset (1997-2016), the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Annual national incidence (with 25th and 75th quartiles) for IIH was 1.15 (0.91, 1.44). Females had an incidence of 1.97 (1.48, 2.48), larger ( = 0.0000038) than males at 0.36 (0.26, 0.38). Regarding age, largest incidence was among those 18-44 years old at 2.47 (1.84, 2.73). Low-income patients had an incidence of 1.56 (1.47, 1.82), larger ( = 0.00024) than the 1.21 (1.01, 1.36) of the middle/high. No differences (χ = 4.67, = 0.097) were appreciated between urban (1.44; 1.40, 1.61), suburban (1.30; 1.09, 1.40), or rural (1.46; 1.40, 1.48) communities. For race/ethnicity (χ = 57, = 2.57 × 10), incidence was largest for Blacks (2.05; 1.76, 2.74), followed by Whites (1.04; 0.79, 1.41), Hispanics (0.67; 0.57, 0.94), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (0.16; 0.11, 0.19). Year-to-year, incidence rose for all strata subsets except Asian/Pacific Islanders (τ = -0.84, = 0.00000068). IIH demonstrates several sociodemographic disparities. Specifically, incidences are larger for those low-income, Black, 18-44 years old, or female, while annually increasing for all subsets, except Asian/Pacific Islanders. Hence, IIH differentially afflicts the US population, yielding in healthcare inequalities. Copyright © 2020 Ghaffari-Rafi, Mehdizadeh, Ko, Ghaffari-Rafi and Leon-Rojas.