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Identification of Small Peptides that Inhibit NADPH Oxidase (Nox2) Activation.

Research paper by Aron B AB Fisher, Chandra C Dodia, Sheldon I SI Feinstein

Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)



Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NADPH) oxidase type 2 (Nox2), a major source of reactive oxygen species in lungs, plays an important role in tissue damage associated with acute inflammatory diseases. The phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), called aiPLA₂, is required for Nox2 activation through its role in the cellular generation of Rac, a key cytosolic component of the activation cascade. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) binds to Prdx6, inhibits its aiPLA₂ activity, and prevents activation of Nox2. Based on protein docking software, we previously identified a 16 amino acid (aa) peptide derived from rat SP-A as the Prdx6 binding motif. We now identify the minimal effective sequences of rat/mouse and human SP-A as 9-aa sequences that we have called PLA₂-inhibitory peptide (PIP).These sequences are PIP-1, rat/mouse; PIP-2, human; and PIP-3, a hybrid of PIPs 1&2. aiPLA₂ activity in vitro was inhibited by 50% with ~7⁻10 µg PIP/µg Prdx6. Inhibition of the aiPLA₂ activity and Nox2 activation of lungs in vivo was similar for intratracheal (IT) and intravenous (IV) administration of PIP-2, but required its incorporation into liposomes as a delivery vehicle; tissue ½ time for decrease of the in vivo inhibition of aiPLA₂ activity after PIP-2 administration was ~50 h. These properties suggest that PIP-2 could be an effective therapeutic agent to prevent tissue injury associated with lung inflammation.