Indexed on: 11 Aug '16Published on: 11 Aug '16Published in: Molecular Cytogenetics
Marker chromosomes are small supernumerary chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by chromosome banding techniques alone. However, the precise characterization of marker chromosomes is important for prenatal diagnosis and proper genetic counseling. In this study, we evaluated the chromosomal origin of marker chromosomes using a combination of banding cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetic techniques including diverse fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).In a series of 2871 patients for whom cytogenetic analysis was requested, 14 cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) were identified. Nine sSMCs were mosaic, and five nonmosaic. Of the nine cases with known parental origins, four were identified as de novo, and four and one were maternally and paternally inherited, respectively. Six sSMCs were identified by FISH using centromeric probes; three sSMCs were derived from chromosome 15, including two heterochromatic sSMC(15)s and a large sSMC(15) spanning 15q11.1q13.1, and three sSMCs originated from chromosome 14 or 22. Array CGH revealed two cases with derivatives of chromosome 2 and whole chromosome painting multicolor-FISH (M-FISH) identified three cases with derivatives of chromosome 6, 16, and 19, respectively. One maker chromosome in Turner syndrome was characterized as sSMC(X) by preferential application of a centromeric probe for X-chromosome. In addition, one sSMC composed of genomic materials from chromosomes 12 and 18 was identified in parallel with parental karyotype analysis that revealed the reciprocal balanced translocation.This report is the largest study on sSMCs in Korea and expands the spectrum of sSMCs that are molecularly characterized.