Indexed on: 03 Dec '11Published on: 03 Dec '11Published in: Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids
The ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 gene ABCG2/BCRP locates in a gout-susceptibility locus (MIM 138900) on chromosome 4q. Recent genome-wide association studies also showed that the ABCG2 gene relates to serum uric acid levels and gout. Since ABCG2 is also known as a transporter of nucleotide analogs that are structurally similar to urate, and is an exporter that has common polymorphic reduced functionality variants, ABCG2 could be a urate secretion transporter and a gene causing gout. To find candidate mutations in ABCG2, we performed a mutation analysis of the ABCG2 gene in 90 Japanese patients with hyperuricemia and found six non-synonymous mutations. Among the variants, ATP-dependent urate transport was reduced or eliminated in five variants, and two out of the five variants (Q126X and Q141K) were frequently detected in patients. Haplotype frequency analysis revealed that there is no simultaneous presence of Q126X and Q141K in one haplotype. As Q126X and Q141K are a nonfunctional and half-functional haplotype, respectively, their genotype combinations are divided into four estimated functional groups. The association study with 161 male gout patients and 865 male controls showed that all of those who had dysfunctional ABCG2 had an increased risk of gout, and that a remarkable risk was observed in those with ≤1/4 function (OR, 25.8; 95% CI, 10.3-64.6; p = 3.39 × 10(-21)). In 2,150 Japanese individuals, the frequency of those with dysfunctional ABCG2 was more than 50%. Our function-based clinicogenetic analysis identified the combinations of dysfunctional variants of ABCG2 as a major contributing factor in Japanese patients with gout.