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"Ideal PEEP" is superior to high dose partial liquid ventilation with low PEEP in experimental acute lung injury.

Research paper by S S Wolf, H H Lohbrunner, T T Busch, M M Deja, S S Weber-Carstens, B B Donaubauer, A A Sterner-Kock, U U Kaisers

Indexed on: 18 Jan '02Published on: 18 Jan '02Published in: Intensive Care Medicine



Abstract

To determine the effects of a high dose partial liquid ventilation (PLV) approximating the amount of the functional residual capacity (FRC) with low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) compared to a lung-protective strategy with volume-controlled mechanical ventilation (vcMV) with a PEEP level above the lower inflection point (LIP) on pulmonary gas exchange, haemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and lung injury in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI).Prospective, randomised, controlled study.Twenty-four anaesthetised, tracheotomised and mechanically ventilated (FIO(2) 1.0) pigs underwent induction of ALI by repeated saline wash-out of surfactant. Animals were randomly assigned to receive either PLV ( PLV, n=8) with 30 ml/kg of perfluorocarbons (PF 5080, 3 M, Germany) and a PEEP level of 5 cmH(2)O, to receive vcMV with a PEEP level of 1 cmH(2)O above the LIP ( (ideal) PEEP, n=8), or to receive vcMV with a PEEP level of 5 cmH(2)O ( Controls, n=8).Measurements of pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and haemodynamics were performed hourly for a 6 h period. In the (ideal) PEEP group, intra-pulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) decreased from 55+/-5% after induction of ALI to 10+/-3% ( p<0.05 versus Controls and versus PLV) and PaO(2) increased from 52+/-4 to 566+/-19 mmHg after 6 h of treatment ( p<0.05 versus Controls and versus PLV). In the PLV group, Qs/Qt decreased from 50+/-5% after induction of ALI to 24+/-3% ( p<0.05 versus Controls) and PaO(2) increased from 59+/-5 to 306+/-35 mmHg after 6 h of treatment ( p<0.05 versus Controls). In the PLV group and in Controls, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) was significantly increased from 27+/-2 to 38+/-2 mmHg and from 29+/-1 to 40+/-1 mmHg, respectively, 6 h after induction of ALI ( p<0.05 versus (ideal) PEEP), while in the (ideal) PEEP group, MPAP was maintained between 26+/-1 and 31+/-2 mmHg for 6 h after ALI. Cardiac output (CO) decreased significantly in the (ideal) PEEP group compared to Controls ( p<0.05), while CO did not change in the PLV group and in Controls. The compliance of the respiratory system (C(RS)) increased in the (ideal) PEEP group after induction of ALI from 11+/-2 to 22+/-5 ml/mbar ( p<0.05 versus Controls and versus PLV) and in the PLV group from 10+/-2 to 13+/-3 ml/mbar after 6 h of treatment ( p<0.05 versus Controls). On histological examination, the highest total injury scores were found in animals of the PLV group ( p<0.05 versus Controls and versus (ideal) PEEP), while the lowest total lung injury score was found in the dependent lung regions of the (ideal) PEEP group ( p<0.05 versus Controls).In this porcine model of ALI, vcMV with a PEEP level of 1 cmH(2)O above the LIP was superior to high dose PLV with a PEEP of 5 cmH(2)O in improving gas exchange and lung mechanics. In terms of lung damage, the treatment in the (ideal) PEEP group resulted in the lowest total lung injury scores.