Hydroxyapatite and titania sol-gel composite coatings on titanium for hard tissue implants; mechanical and in vitro biological performance.

Research paper by Hae-Won HW Kim, Hyoun-Ee HE Kim, Vehid V Salih, Jonathan C JC Knowles

Indexed on: 14 Oct '04Published on: 14 Oct '04Published in: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials


Hydroxyapatite (HA) composites with titania (TiO2) up to 30 mol % were coated on a titanium (Ti) substrate by a sol-gel route, and the mechanical and biological properties of the coating systems were evaluated. Using polymeric precursors, highly stable HA and TiO2 sols were prepared prior to making composite sols and coatings. Coatings were produced under a controlled spinning and heat treatment process. Pure phases of HA and TiO2 were well developed on the composites after heat treatment above 450 degrees C. The HA-TiO2 composite coating layers were homogeneous and highly dense with a thickness of about 800-900 nm. The adhesion strength of the coating layers with respect to Ti substrate increased with increasing the TiO2 addition. The highest strength obtained was as high as 56 MPa, with an improvement of about 50% when compared to pure HA (37 MPa). The osteoblast-like cells grew and spread actively on all the composite coatings. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the cells grown on the composite coatings were much higher than those on bare Ti, and even comparable to those on pure HA coating. Notably, the HA-20% TiO2 composite coating showed a significantly higher proliferation and ALP expression compared to bare Ti (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the sol-gel-derived HA-TiO2 composite coatings possess excellent properties for hard tissue applications from the mechanical and biological perspective.