Indexed on: 13 May '09Published on: 13 May '09Published in: Peptides
Human hemokinin-1 (h HK-1) and its truncated form h HK-1(4-11) are mammalian tachykinin peptides encoded by the TAC4 gene identified in human, and the biological functions of these peptides have not been well investigated. The tachykinins have shown immuno-regulatory activities in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of h HK-1 and h HK-1(4-11) on the proliferation and differentiation of a human promyelocyte leukemia cell line, HL-60. It is noteworthy that h HK-1 (1-300muM) displayed inhibitory effects on the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of suppressing proliferation induced by these peptides was accompanied by an accumulation of cell cycle in the S phase. Moreover, this peptide induced differentiation of HL-60 cells by significantly increasing the NBT-reduction activity. The effects induced by h HK-1(4-11) on HL-60 cells were similar to that of h HK-1, indicating that it is the active fragment of h HK-1. However these effects induced by h HK-1 or h HK-1(4-11) were not antagonized by the NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 or the NK(2) receptor antagonist SR48968. All the results indicated that h HK-1 and h HK-1(4-11) were able to significantly inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation and S phase arrest of a human promyelocyte leukemia cell line HL-60, which may not be mediated through the activation of classical tachykinin NK(1) receptors and tachykinin NK(2) receptors. Our observations also implied that h HK-1 and h HK-1(4-11) could act as immunomodulatory factors in cancer chemotherapy.