Indexed on: 26 Aug '14Published on: 26 Aug '14Published in: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lipid peroxidation directly reacts with DNA and produces various exocyclic etheno-base DNA adducts, some of which are considered to contribute to carcinogenesis. However, the system for repairing them in humans is largely unknown. We hypothesized that etheno-DNA adducts are repaired by base excision repair initiated by DNA glycosylase. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activities of the DNA glycosylase proteins OGG1, SMUG1, TDG, NEIL1, MUTYH, NTH1, MPG, and UNG2 against double-stranded oligonucleotides containing 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (εA), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (εC), butanone-ethenocytosine (BεC), butanone-ethenoguanine (BεG), heptanone-ethenocytosine (HεC), or heptanone-ethenoguanine (HεG) using a DNA cleavage assay. We found that TDG is capable of removing thymine that has mispaired with εC, BεC, BεG, HεC, or HεG in vitro. We next examined the effect of TDG against etheno-DNA adducts in human cells. TDG-knockdown cells exhibited the following characteristics: (a) higher resistance to cell death caused by the induction of etheno-DNA adducts; (b) lower repair activity for εC; and (c) a modest acceleration of mutations caused by εC, compared with the rate in control cells. All these characteristics suggest that TDG exerts a repair activity against etheno-DNA adducts in human cells. These results suggest that TDG has novel repair activities toward etheno-DNA adducts.