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Household Air Pollution, Levels of Micronutrients and Heavy Metals in Cord and Maternal Blood, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

Research paper by Ganiyu Olatunbosun GO Arinola, Anindita A Dutta, Oluwafemi O Oluwole, Christopher O CO Olopade

Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: International journal of environmental research and public health



Abstract

Cooking with kerosene emits toxic pollutants that may impact pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-eight women in their first trimester of pregnancy, kerosene users ( = 42) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) users ( = 26), were followed until birth. Maternal and cord blood were collected immediately after birth. Levels of micronutrients and heavy metals were quantified. Pregnancy outcomes (gestation age (GA), birth weight (BW), and chest and head circumference) were also measured. Mean (± standard deviation (SD)) age of mothers in kerosene and LNG groups were similar ( = 0.734). Mean (±SD) BW of newborns of LNG users was significantly higher compared to newborns of kerosene users (3.43 ± 0.32 vs. 3.02 ± 0.43, < 0.001). Mean GA (in weeks) was similar between the two groups ( = 0.532). Women in the kerosene group had significantly higher cord blood levels of zinc, lead, mercury, iodine and vitamin B6 and lower levels of folic acid compared to LNG users ( < 0.05). Newborns of kerosene users had reduced levels of zinc, lead, mercury, iodine, vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, and homocysteine compared with LNG users ( < 0.05). Also, cooking with kerosene was significantly associated with reduced birth weight after adjusting for potential confounders (β ± standard error (SE) = -0.326 ± 0.155; = 0.040). Smoke from kerosene stove was associated with reduced birth weight and micronutrients imbalance in mothers and newborns.