Indexed on: 17 Nov '11Published on: 17 Nov '11Published in: BONE
Diabetes mellitus (DM) may alter bone remodeling, as osteopenia and osteoporosis are among the complications. Moreover, DM increases the risk and severity of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, in which bone resorption occurs. Broad evidence suggests that chronic inflammation can contribute to the development of DM and its complications. Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of DM that may contribute to sustained inflammation by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, which are known to cause insulin resistance, via toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-mediated mechanisms. However, the mechanisms by which bone-related complications develop in DM are still unknown. Studies done on the effect of high glucose concentrations on osteoblast functions are contradictory because some suggest increases (although others suggest reductions) in the biomineralization process. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of high glucose levels on biomineralization and inflammation markers in a human osteoblastic cell line. Cells were treated with either physiological 5.5 mM or increasing concentrations of glucose up to 24 mM, and we determined the following: i) the quantity and quality of calcium-deposit crystals in culture and ii) the expression of the following: a) proteins associated with the process of biomineralization, b) the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), c) cytokines IL1, IL6, IL8, IL10, MCP-1 and TNF alpha, and d) TLR-2, -3, -4 and -9. Our results show that high glucose concentrations (12 mM and particularly 24 mM) alter the biomineralization process in osteoblastic cells and provoke the following: i) a rise in mineralization, ii) an increase in the mRNA expression of RANKL and a decrease of OPG, iii) an increase in the mRNA expression of osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and the transcription factor Runx2, iv) a diminished quality of the mineral, and v) an increase in the expression of IL1beta, IL6, IL8, MCP-1 and IL10 mRNAs. In addition we found that both high glucose levels and hyperosmotic conditions provoked TLR-2, -3, -4 and -9 overexpression in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that they are susceptible to osmotic stress.