Indexed on: 20 Aug '14Published on: 20 Aug '14Published in: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well-documented in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bioflavonoids are being utilised as neuroprotectants in the treatment of various neurological disorders, including AD. Therefore, we conducted this current study in order to explore the effects of hesperidin (a flavanone glycoside) against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two hesperidin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg per day) groups, or an Aricept (2.5 mg/kg per day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, although there was no obvious change in Aβ deposition in the hesperidin-treated (100 mg/kg per day) group, however, we found that the administration of hesperidin (100 mg/kg per day) resulted in the reduction of learning and memory deficits, improved locomotor activity, and the increase of anti-oxidative defense and mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes activities. Furthermore, Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation significantly increased in the hesperidin-treated (100 mg/kg per day) group. Taken together, these findings suggest that a reduction in mitochondrial dysfunction through the inhibition of GSK-3β activity, coupled with an increase in anti-oxidative defense, may be one of the mechanisms by which hesperidin improves cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD.