Indexed on: 30 Aug '14Published on: 30 Aug '14Published in: Helicobacter
This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children.