Indexed on: 10 Nov '18Published on: 10 Nov '18Published in: Journal of Adolescent Health
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory and/or physical fitness health problems in adolescent (ages 18-21) water pipe (WP) smokers (with or without cigarette smoking), cigarette-only smokers, and nonsmokers. A comparative four-group study design was used to recruit a non-probability sample of 153 WP smokers only, 103 cigarette smokers only, and 102 cigarette+WP smokers along with 296 nonsmokers. Our hypothesis was that youth who smoked WPs and/or cigarettes would report more respiratory problems and/or poorer physical fitness than those who did not smoke. The results showed that coughs were significantly associated with smoking in all three of the smoking groups (p < .05). Cigarette-only smokers reported the most adverse outcomes with more wheezing, difficulty breathing, and less ability to exercise without shortness of breath. A dose-response analysis showed similar patterns of adverse health effects for both WP and cigarette smokers. The combined use of both products was not appreciably worse than smoking one product alone. This could be due to cigarette+WP smokers' reporting using less of the respective products when only one product was smoked. Even during the adolescent years, WP and/or cigarette smoking youth experienced reportable negative health effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.