Halogenated Phenazines that Potently Eradicate Biofilms, MRSA Persister Cells in Non‐Biofilm Cultures, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Research paper by Aaron T. Garrison, Yasmeen Abouelhassan, Dr. Dimitris Kallifidas, Dr. Fang Bai, Dr. Maria Ukhanova, Prof. Dr. Volker Mai, Prof. Dr. Shouguang Jin, Prof. Dr. Hendrik Luesch, Prof. Dr. Robert W. Huigens III

Indexed on: 03 Nov '15Published on: 20 Oct '15Published in: Angewandte Chemie International Edition


Conventional antibiotics are ineffective against non‐replicating bacteria (for example, bacteria within biofilms). We report a series of halogenated phenazines (HP), inspired by marine antibiotic 1, that targets persistent bacteria. HP 14 demonstrated the most potent biofilm eradication activities to date against MRSA, MRSE, and VRE biofilms (MBEC=0.2–12.5 μM), as well as the effective killing of MRSA persister cells in non‐biofilm cultures. Frontline MRSA treatments, vancomycin and daptomycin, were unable to eradicate MRSA biofilms or non‐biofilm persisters alongside 14. HP 13 displayed potent antibacterial activity against slow‐growing M. tuberculosis (MIC=3.13 μM), the leading cause of death by bacterial infection around the world. HP analogues effectively target persistent bacteria through a mechanism that is non‐toxic to mammalian cells and could have a significant impact on treatments for chronic bacterial infections.