Glutathione conjugation of perchloroethylene in rats and mice in vitro: sex-, species-, and tissue-dependent differences.

Research paper by L H LH Lash, W W Qian, D A DA Putt, K K Desai, A A AA Elfarra, A R AR Sicuri, J C JC Parker

Indexed on: 19 Jun '98Published on: 19 Jun '98Published in: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology


Perchloroethylene (Per)-induced nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity have been associated with metabolism by the glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathway to form S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)glutathione (TCVG). Formation of TCVG was determined in incubations of Per and GSH with isolated renal cortical cells and hepatocytes from male and female Fischer 344 rats and with renal and hepatic cytosol and microsomes from male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. The goal was to assess the role of metabolism in the sex and species dependence of susceptibility to Per-induced toxicity. A key finding was that GSH conjugation of Per occurs in kidney as well as in liver. Although amounts of TCVG formation in isolated kidney cells and hepatocytes from male and female rats were generally similar, TCVG formation in subcellular fractions showed marked sex, species, and tissue dependence. This may be due to the presence of multiple pathways for metabolism in intact cells, whereas only the GSH conjugation pathway is active in the subcellular fractions under the present assay conditions. TCVG formation in kidney and liver subcellular fractions from both male rats and mice were invariably higher than corresponding values in female rats and mice. Amounts of TCVG formation in rat liver subcellular fractions were approximately 10-fold higher than in corresponding fractions from rat kidney. Although rats are more susceptible to Per-induced renal tumors than mice, amounts of TCVG formation were 7- to 10-fold higher in mouse kidney subcellular fractions and 2- to 5-fold higher in mouse liver subcellular fractions of both sexes compared to corresponding fractions from the rat. Hence, although the higher amounts of TCVG formation in liver and kidney from male rats correspond to their higher susceptibility to Per-induced renal tumors compared with female rats, the markedly higher amounts of TCVG formation in mice compared with rats suggest that other enzymatic or transport steps in the handling of Per in mice contribute to their relatively low susceptibility to Per-induced renal tumors