Indexed on: 14 Jul '20Published on: 14 Jul '20Published in: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
The activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is closely related to the alleviation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by regulating oxidative stress and lipid homeostasis. Gentiopicroside (GPS), an iridoid glycoside found in the Gentianaceae, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the protective effects of GPS on lipid accumulation and oxidative damage have not been investigated thoroughly in free fatty acid- (FFA-) induced HepG2 cells and tyloxapol- (Ty-) induced hyperlipidemia mice. Cell counting kit-8 assays, Oil Red O staining, Western blotting analysis, extraction of nuclear and cytosolic proteins, and biochemical index assay were employed to explore the mechanisms by which GPS exerts a protective effect on FFA-induced HepG2 cells and Ty-induced hyperlipidemia mouse model. This paper demonstrates that GPS could effectively alleviate NAFLD by elevating cell viability, reducing fatty deposition, downregulating TG, and activating nucleus Nrf2 in FFA-induced HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, GPS significantly regulated the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and GPS-inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in FFA-stimulated lipid accumulation of HepG2 cells and Ty-treated mice. Interestingly, we highlight that PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) markedly increased the expression of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, PPAR, and downregulated SREBP-1c in FFA-stimulated HepG2 cells. For these reasons, we found that the deletion of Nrf2 could lose the protective effects of GPS on the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and PPAR activation and SREBP-1c inactivation in FFA-stimulated HepG2 cells and Ty-treated mice. GPS treatment had no effect on abnormal lipogenesis and antioxidant enzymes in Ty-induced Nrf2 mice. This work gives a new explanation that GPS may be a useful therapeutic strategy for NAFLD through upregulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, which can alleviate oxidative damage and lipid accumulation. Copyright © 2020 Meiyu Jin et al.