Genetic Influence on Accessory Navicular Bone in the Foot: A Korean Twin and Family Study.

Research paper by In Yae IY Cheong, Hyo Jeong HJ Kang, Hyeonyoung H Ko, Joohon J Sung, Yun-Mi YM Song, Ji Hye JH Hwang

Indexed on: 10 Apr '17Published on: 10 Apr '17Published in: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies


An accessory navicular bone (AN) is the most common accessory ossicle in the foot. The presence of an AN bone can trigger various foot problems, such as posterior tibial tendon pathology, flattening of the medial longitudinal arch, and medial foot pain. Despite the clinical influence of presence of an AN in foot disease, the research regarding its inheritance is still insufficient. A total of 135 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 25 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, and 676 singletons from families were enrolled in order to estimate genetic influences on AN. After confirmation of zygosity and family relationship with a tandem repeat marker kit and questionnaires, the presence and type of the AN was classified through bilateral feet radiographic examination. The heritability of an AN was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model considering various types of family relationships: father-offspring pair, mother-offspring pair, and pooled DZ twin and sibling pairs. As a result, approximately 40.96% of the participants in this study had an AN in either foot, with type II being the most common type. The heritability for the presence of any type of an AN in any foot was estimated as 0.88 (95% CI [0.82, 0.94]) after adjusting for age and sex. Specifically, type II AN showed the highest heritability of 0.82 (95% CI [0.71-0.93]). The high heritability of an AN found in this large twin and family study suggests that an AN is determined by the substantial influence of genetic factor.