Gender differences in effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP).

Research paper by Lillian M LM Kent, Darren P DP Morton, Paul M PM Rankin, John E JE Gobble, Hans A HA Diehl

Indexed on: 15 Oct '14Published on: 15 Oct '14Published in: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior


To determine the differential effect of gender on outcomes of the Complete Health Improvement Program, a chronic disease lifestyle intervention program.Thirty-day cohort study.One hundred thirty-six venues around North America, 2006 to 2009.A total of 5,046 participants (33.5% men, aged 57.9 ± 13.0 years; 66.5% women, aged 57.0 ± 12.9 years).Diet, exercise, and stress management.Body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, lipids, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG).The researchers used t test and McNemar chi-square test of proportions, at P < .05.Reductions were significantly greater for women for high-density lipoprotein (9.1% vs 7.6%) but greater for men for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (16.3% vs 11.5%), total cholesterol (TC) (13.2% vs 10.1%), triglycerides (11.4% vs 5.6%), FPG (8.2% vs 5.3%), body mass index (3.5% vs 3%), diastolic blood pressure (5.5% vs 5.1%), and TC/high-density lipoprotein (6.3% vs 1.4%) but not different for systolic blood pressure (6% vs 5%). The greatest reductions were in participants with the highest baseline TC, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and FPG classifications.The Complete Health Improvement Program effectively reduced chronic disease risk factors among both genders, but particularly men, with the largest reductions occurring in individuals at greatest risk. Physiological or behavioral factor explanations, including differences in adiposity and hormones, dietary intake, commitment and social support, are explored. Researchers should consider addressing gender differences in food preferences and eliciting commitment and differential support modes in the development of lifestyle interventions such as the Complete Health Improvement Program.