# Gate-controlled quantum dots and superconductivity in planar germanium

Research paper by N. W. Hendrickx, D. P. Franke, A. Sammak, M. Kouwenhoven, D. Sabbagh, L. Yeoh, R. Li, M. L. V. Tagliaferri, M. Virgilio, G. Capellini, G. Scappucci, M. Veldhorst

Indexed on: 26 Jan '18Published on: 26 Jan '18Published in: arXiv - Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect

#### Abstract

Superconductors and semiconductors are crucial platforms in the field of quantum computing. They can be combined to hybrids, bringing together physical properties that enable the discovery of new emergent phenomena and provide novel strategies for quantum control. The involved semiconductor materials, however, suffer from disorder, hyperfine interactions or lack of planar technology. Here we realise an approach that overcomes these issues altogether and integrate gate-defined quantum dots and superconductivity into a material system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In our germanium heterostructures, heavy holes with mobilities exceeding 500,000 cm$^2$/Vs are confined in shallow quantum wells that are directly contacted by annealed aluminium leads. We demonstrate gate-tunable superconductivity and find a characteristic voltage $I_cR_n$ that exceeds 10 $\mu$V. Germanium therefore has great promise for fast and coherent quantum hardware and, being compatible with standard manufacturing, could become a leading material in the quantum revolution.