Indexed on: 13 Jul '16Published on: 13 Jul '16Published in: The oncologist
: In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms was reviewed and validated the crucial role of the proliferative rate. According to the WHO classification 2010, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are classified as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of grade 1 or 2 in up to 84%, or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas in 6%-8%. Neuroendocrine carcinomas are of grade G-3. Recently, a proportion of neuroendocrine tumors presenting a number of mitoses or a Ki-67 index higher than 20% and a well-differentiated morphology have been identified, calling for a new category, well-differentiated grade 3 NET (NET G-3). Studies that have reported the characteristics of neuroendocrine neoplasms have identified more well-differentiated NET G-3 than neuroendocrine carcinomas. The main localizations of NET G-3 are the pancreas, stomach, and colon. Treatment for NET G-3 is not standardized and differ from either neuroendocrine tumors of G-1/2 or neuroendocrine carcinomas. In nonmetastatic neuroendocrine tumors, the European and American guidelines recommended a surgical resection for localized neuroendocrine neoplasm, irrespective of the tumor grading. In NET G-3, chemotherapy is the benchmark if the main treatment goal is reduction of the tumor mass, particularly if it would allow a secondary surgery. In the present work, we review the epidemiology and make recommendations for the management of NET G-3.Neuroendocrine tumors presenting a number of mitoses or a Ki-67 index higher than 20% and a well-differentiated morphology have been identified and named well-differentiated grade 3 neuroendocrine tumors (NET G-3). The main localizations of NET G-3 are the pancreas, stomach, and colon. The prognosis is lower than that for NET G-2. In nonmetastatic NET G-3, surgery appeared as the first option. The chemotherapy regimen in pancreatic NET G-3 should be in line with that implemented in NET G-1/2 when the Ki-67 index is below 55% and, as for neuroendocrine carcinoma chemotherapy regimen, when Ki-67 is above 55%.