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Gastric bypass for morbidly obese patients with established cardiac disease.

Research paper by Grady D GD Alsabrook, Hope R HR Goodman, J Wesley JW Alexander

Indexed on: 25 Oct '06Published on: 25 Oct '06Published in: Obesity Surgery



Abstract

Bariatric surgery has often been avoided in patients with known cardiac disease because of the risks inherent in this patient population. This study was done to evaluate both the risks and benefits of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) in morbidly obese patients with established cardiac disease.Data were analyzed to compare preoperative with postoperative co-morbid cardiac risk factors, peri-operative and postoperative complications, and change in body mass index (BMI) in 77 consecutive patients who had a preoperative diagnosis of cardiac disease and underwent RYGBP between March 1998 and January 31, 2006. Findings were compared to a concomitant control group without cardiac disease.The preoperative presence of cardiac disease was manifested primarily as coronary artery disease (CAD) (45 patients) or as congestive heart failure (CHF) (32 patients). Of the patients with CAD, 60% had diabetes, 91% had hypertension and 39% had hyperlipidemia. 58% had one or more prior invasive cardiac procedures. In the CHF group, 50% had diabetes, 71% had hypertension and 44% had hyperlipidemia. The average length of stay was 3.7 days for CAD patients and 3.3 days for CHF compared to 3.0 days for controls. All co-morbid conditions were improved, and no patient died from cardiac disease. However, one patient died as a complication of GI bleeding, one patient subsequently underwent revascularization and another underwent stenting. Other complications up to 5 years postoperatively were frequent but seldom life-threatening.RYGBP surgery in patients with existing cardiac disease appears to have acceptable risk and is effective in reducing the co-morbid conditions of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea and arthritis, but longer term data are needed.