Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: International journal of molecular sciences
Galangin, a member of the flavonol compounds of the flavonoids, could exert anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types. It has been used for the treatment of arthritis, airway inflammation, stroke, and cognitive impairment. Thrombin, one of the regulators of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), has been known as a vital factor of physiological and pathological processes, including cell migration, the blood⁻brain barrier breakdown, brain edema formation, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. MMP-9 especially may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of galangin in combating thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression is not well understood in neurons. Therefore, we attempted to explore the molecular mechanisms by which galangin inhibited MMP-9 expression and cell migration induced by thrombin in SK-N-SH cells (a human neuroblastoma cell line). Gelatin zymography, western blot, real-time PCR, and cell migration assay were used to elucidate the inhibitory effects of galangin on the thrmbin-mediated responses. The results showed that galangin markedly attenuated the thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (c-Src), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), protein kinase C (PKC)α/β/δ, protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2, p38 MAPK, forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), p65, and c-Jun and suppressed MMP-9 expression and cell migration in SK-N-SH cells. Our results concluded that galangin blocked the thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in SK-N-SH cells via inhibiting c-Src, Pyk2, PKCα/βII/δ, Akt, mTOR, p42/p44 MAPK, JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, FoxO1, c-Jun, and p65 phosphorylation and ultimately attenuated cell migration. Therefore, galangin may be a potential candidate for the management of brain inflammatory diseases.