Indexed on: 04 Oct '17Published on: 04 Oct '17Published in: Molecular cancer research : MCR
Urothelial carcinoma accounts for most the of bladder cancer cases. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies we found that a significant percentage (83%) of tumors had mutations in chromatin remodeling genes. Here, we examined the functional relevance of mutations in two chromatin remodeling genes, EP300 and its paralog, CREBBP, which are mutated in almost a third of patients. Interestingly, almost half of missense mutations cluster in the histone-acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of EP300/CREBBP. This domain catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group to target molecules such as histones, thereby regulating chromatin dynamics. Thus, patients with EP300 or CREBBP mutations may have alterations in the ability of the corresponding proteins to modify histone proteins and control transcriptional profiles. In fact, it was determined that many of the missense HAT mutations in EP300 (64%) and CREBBP (78%) were HAT-inactivating. These inactivating mutations also correlated with invasive disease in patients. Strikingly, the prediction software Mutation Assessor accurately predicted the functional consequences of each HAT missense mutation. Finally, a gene expression signature was developed that associated with loss of HAT activity and that this signature was associated with more aggressive cancer in four patient data sets. Further supporting the notion that this score accurately reflects HAT activity, we found it is responsive to treatment of cancer cells to mocetinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.This study provides a rationale for targeted sequencing of EP300 and CREBBP and use of a gene profiling signature for predicting therapeutic response in patients.