Imported: 18 Feb '17 | Published: 28 Mar '06
USPTO - Utility Patents
A fuel injector, in particular for the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, includes a valve needle at whose discharge-side end a valve-closure member is positioned, which cooperates with a valve-seat surface, formed at a valve-seat member, to form a sealing seat. A spray-discharge orifice calotte connected to the valve-seat member of the fuel injector, or integrally formed in one piece with it, has at least three spray-discharge orifices not all extended axes of the spray-discharge orifices intersecting.
From German Patent Application No. DE 198 27 219, a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is known, which includes an injector that has a disk for adjusting the fuel jet, this disk including first nozzle orifices disposed along a first circle, and including second nozzle orifices disposed along a second circle. The second circle has a larger diameter than the first circle. The circles are positioned coaxially with respect to a center axis of the adjustment disk. Each orifice axis of the second nozzle orifices forms an acute angle to a reference plane that is perpendicular to the center axis of the valve body. The angle is smaller than that formed by each orifice axis of the first nozzle orifices with the reference plane. Therefore, fuel atomizations, which are injected through the first nozzle orifices, can be directed away from the fuel atomizations being injected through the second nozzle orifices. As a result, the fuel atomizations injected through the first nozzle orifices do not interfere with the fuel atomizations injected through the second nozzle orifices, thereby allowing an appropriate atomization of the injected fuel.
Disadvantageous in this related art is that, on an inflow-side of the disk for adjusting the fuel jet, the spacing of the nozzle orifices is smaller than it is on an outer side of the disk for adjusting the fuel jet facing away from a combustion chamber. As a result, the formation of an overall injection jet, made up of the individual fuel jets, is only possible in certain (setpoint) inputs. The spacing of the nozzle orifices must not fall below certain values if the stability and strength of the disk for adjusting the fuel are to be ensured.
From German Patent Application No. DE 198 04 463, a fuel injector for mixture-compressing internal combustion engines having external ignition is known, which is provided with at least one row of injection orifices distributed over the circumference of the injection nozzle. Fuel is selectively injected via the injection orifices to realize a jet-controlled combustion method by a mixture cloud being formed, at least one jet being aimed in the direction of the spark plug or its immediate vicinity for the ignition. Additional jets are provided for forming an at least approximately continuous or cohesive mixture cloud.
In this related art, the injection orifices with their extended axes on the side of the fuel inflow, are directed to a common intersection of the axes. An optimal strength of the spray-discharge section, which is penetrated by the injection orifices, cannot be achieved.
The fuel injection system according to the present invention, has the advantage over the related art that the spray-discharge orifices are evenly distributed over the surface of the spray-discharge orifice calotte. Even on the side of the spray-discharge orifice calotte facing the valve needle, there are no spaces between the spray-discharge orifices that are too narrow. The strength of the spray-discharge orifice calotte is at its maximum.
The spray-discharge orifices are advantageously configured on the spray-discharge orifice calotte in a way that maximizes the average respective clearances of adjacent axes.
Bores placed in a flat disk have a maximum mutual clearance when they are evenly distributed over the disk and when the extended axes of adjacent bores are in parallel to one another. In fuel injectors, however, the spray-discharge orifices are disposed on an essentially hemispherical spray-discharge orifice calotte. Moreover, the spray-discharge orifices must be aligned in such a way that the desired jet pattern is generated. Therefore, the axes of the spray-discharge orifices are not in parallel to one another. The alignment is implemented in that all the axes of the spray-discharge orifices intersect at one point on the side of the valve needle to the spray-discharge orifice calotte, and the location of the spray-discharge orifice on the spray-discharge orifice calotte determines the direction of the axis. When the spray-discharge orifices are moved further apart, so that the axes of adjacent spray-discharge orifices have the largest possible clearance when viewed as geometrical lines in space, a maximum strength of the spray-discharge orifice calotte is able to be obtained. Since the orientation of a spray-discharge orifice is then, up to a certain extent, independent of the location of the spray-discharge orifice on the spray-discharge orifice calotte, the spray-discharge orifices may be distributed evenly on the spray-discharge orifice calotte in an advantageous manner. The faults in the formation of a total jet pattern, made up of individual fuel jets of the spray-discharge orifices, which are caused by the spray-discharge orifices being moved further apart, are negligible.
In one advantageous specific embodiment, the maximally two axes in each case intersect, and the intersecting points of the intersecting axes lie on a plane of symmetry that is perpendicular to the plane of the spray-discharge calotte. The spray-discharge orifices whose axes intersect are disposed in mirror symmetry with respect to the plane of symmetry and are oriented such that an ellipse results in a jet cross-section across all fuel jets of the spray-discharge orifices.
It is advantageously possible to generate a jet cross-section which, in the overall jet pattern, has an elliptical form across all fuel jets, without all spray-discharge orifices being configured on a narrowly restricted, essentially elliptical segment of the surface of the spray-discharge orifice calotte. The spray-discharge orifices may be evenly distributed across the spray-discharge orifice calotte.
In another advantageous specific embodiment, the spray-discharge orifices are arranged in an essentially circular manner about an axis of symmetry of the spray-discharge orifice calotte. The axes of the spray-discharge orifices are then tangential to a cylinder around the axis of symmetry, and the fuel jets essentially form a cone at a certain distance from the spray-discharge orifice calotte.
This advantageous specific embodiment as well, has the advantage over the related art of a substantially stronger spray-discharge orifice calotte.
A first exemplary embodiment of a fuel injector 1 according to the present invention is designed in the form of a fuel injector 1 of a fuel injection system for mixture-compressing internal combustion engines having externally supplied ignition. Fuel injector 1 is particularly suited for the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber (not shown) of an internal combustion engine.
Fuel injector 1 is made up of a nozzle body 2 in which a valve needle 3 is positioned. Valve needle 3 is mechanically linked to a valve-closure member 4, which interacts with a valve-seat surface 6 positioned on a valve-seat member 5, to form a sealing seat. In the exemplary embodiment, fuel injector 1 is an inwardly opening fuel injector 1, which has a plurality of spray-discharge orifices 7. Seal 8 seals nozzle body 2 from an outer pole 9 of a magnetic coil 10. Magnetic coil 10 is encapsulated in a coil housing 11 and wound on a coil brace 12, which rests against an inner pole 13 of magnetic coil 10. Inner pole 13 and outer pole 9 are separated from each other by a constriction 26 and are interconnected by a non-ferromagnetic connecting part 29. Magnetic coil 10 is energized via a line 19 by an electric current, which may be supplied via an electrical plug contact 17. A plastic coating 18, which may be extruded onto inner pole 13, encloses plug contact 17.
Valve needle 3 is guided in a valve-needle guide 14, which is disk-shaped. A paired adjustment disk 15 is used to adjust the (valve) lift. An armature 20 is on the other side of adjustment disk 15. It is connected by force-locking to valve needle 3 via a first flange 21; and valve needle 3 is connected to first flange 21 by a welded seam 22. Braced against first flange 21 is a restoring spring 23 which, in the present design of fuel injector 1, is prestressed by a sleeve 24. Fuel channels 30a through 30b run in valve-needle guide 14, in armature 20 and valve-seat member 5. The fuel is supplied via a central fuel feed 16 and filtered by a filter element 25. Fuel injector 1 is sealed from a distributor line (not shown further) by a gasket 28.
On the spray-discharge side of armature 20 is a ring-shaped damping element 32 made of an elastomeric material. It rests on a second flange 31, which is connected by force-locking to valve needle 3 via a welded seam 33.
In the rest state of fuel injector 1, armature 20 is acted upon by restoring spring 23, in a direction opposite to its lift direction, in such a manner that valve-closure member 4 is sealingly held against valve seat 6. In response to excitation of magnetic coil 10, it generates a magnetic field which moves armature 20 in the lift direction, counter to the spring force of restoring spring 23, the lift being predefined by a working gap 27, which occurs in the rest position between inner pole 12 and armature 20. First flange 21, which is welded to valve needle 3, is also taken along by armature 20 in the lift direction. Valve-closure member 4, which is connected to valve needle 3, lifts off from valve seat surface 6, so that the fuel is spray-discharged through spray-discharge openings 7.
In response to interruption of the coil current, following sufficient decay of the magnetic field, armature 20 falls away from inner pole 13 due to the pressure of restoring spring 23, whereupon first flange 21, being connected to valve needle 3, moves in a direction counter to the lift. Valve needle 3 is thereby moved in the same direction, causing valve-closure member 4 to set down on valve seat surface 6 and fuel injector 1 to be closed.
FIG. 2a shows a plan view of spray-discharge orifice calotte 34 according to the related art, for an overall jet pattern having an elliptical cross-section. The view corresponds to the view from fuel injector 1 into the inside of the curvature of spray-discharge orifice calotte 34. Spray-discharge orifices 35 are disposed approximately on a plane enclosed by an ellipse, and axes 36, defined by the orientation of spray-discharge orifices 35, intersect at an intersection 37.
FIG. 2b shows a cross-section through spray-discharge orifice calotte 34 in FIG. 2a, which includes spray-discharge orifices 35, axes 36 and intersection 37.
As can be seen very clearly, spray-discharge orifices 35 must be arrayed in relatively close proximity to one another, so as to generate, due to their orientation, an overall jet pattern that has an elliptical cross-section. Especially on the upper side, facing fuel injector 1, of spray-discharge orifice calotte 34, spray-discharge orifices 35 come very close to one another. However, for reasons of production engineering, a minimum clearance of one spray-discharge orifice diameter must be observed.
In a plan view from the direction of valve-closure member 4 of fuel injector 1 of FIG. 1, FIG. 3a shows a first exemplary embodiment of a spray-discharge orifice calotte 37, designed according to the present invention, for an overall jet pattern that has an elliptical cross-section. Spray-discharge orifice calotte 37 is designed in one piece, together with valve-seat member 5 of FIG. 1. The view corresponds to the inside view of the curvature of spray-discharge orifice calotte 37. Spray-discharge orifices 38 are approximately evenly distributed in spray-discharge orifice calotte 37. Axes 39, defined by the orientation of spray-discharge orifices 38, intersect as a pair in each case in a plane of symmetry 40, which is perpendicular to the plane of spray-discharge orifice calotte 37, when viewed from the drawing plane.
FIG. 3b shows a cross-section through spray-discharge orifice calotte 37 in FIG. 3a, which includes spray-discharge orifices 38 and axes 39 in the plane of symmetry 40 of FIG. 3a.
The advantageous configuration (array) and orientation of spray-discharge orifices 38 makes it possible to increase the strength of spray-discharge orifice calotte 37. Spray-discharge orifices 38 are evenly distributed and have a greater mutual clearance, particularly on the inside of spray-discharge orifice calotte 37. In contrast, errors in the overall jet pattern resulting from a shift in spray-discharge orifices 38 are negligible when working with an overall injection jet in close proximity to spray-discharge orifice calotte 37.
In a plan view corresponding to the view of FIG. 3a, FIG. 4 shows another variant of a spray-discharge orifice calotte 41 for a conical overall jet pattern. Spray-discharge orifice calotte 41 has spray-discharge orifices 42 configured in an approximately circular manner. Axes 43, defined by the orientation of spray-discharge orifices 42, are tangential to the middle of an imaginary cylinder.
In this way, the same previously described advantages are obtained for a conical overall jet pattern. In particular, one may specify an alignment of the jet cone's center axis, relative to a fuel-injector axis, of 0°–70° for the conical jet, as well as an opening angle of 30°–100°. In addition, spray-discharge orifices 42 must not necessarily be configured in a graduated circle, but may also be evenly distributed in the form of a raster.
The present invention is not limited to the described exemplary embodiments and y also be used, for example, to generate a hollow cone or a fan jet.