Frank Tony Smith


From sets and simple operations on sets, a Feynman Checkerboard physics model is constructed that allows computation of force strength constants and constituent mass ratios of elementary particles, with a Lagrangian structure that gives a Higgs scalar particle mass of about 146 GeV and a Higgs scalar field vacuum expectation value of about 252 GeV, giving a tree level constituent Truth Quark (top quark) mass of roughly 130 GeV, which is (in my opinion) supported by dileptonic events and some semileptonic events. See and Chapter 1 - Introduction. Chapter 2 - From Sets to Clifford Algebras. Chapter 3 - Octonions and E8 lattices. Chapter 4 - E8 spacetime and particles. Chapter 5 - HyperDiamond Lattices. Chapter 6 - Internal Symmetry Space. Chapter 7 - Feynman Checkerboards. Chapter 8 - Charge = Amplitude to Emit Gauge Boson. Chapter 9 - Mass = Amplitude to Change Direction. Chapter 10 - Protons, Pions, and Physical Gravitons.