Indexed on: 19 Feb '21Published on: 16 Feb '21Published in: Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)
Physics of Fluids, Volume 33, Issue 2, February 2021. In the present work, a three-dimensional turbulent wall jet is simulated using large-eddy simulation to characterize its flow and thermal characteristics. The solver is first validated for streamwise velocity decay, wall-normal and spanwise spread rates, and mean and second-order flow statistics using reference experimental data from the literature. The mean vorticity transport equation for the streamwise component is analyzed to identify the dominant terms that contribute to the large spanwise spread of the jet. The terms that contain Reynolds normal stresses are identified as major contributors to a large mean streamwise component of vorticity. The mean streamwise and wall-normal components of vorticity are studied for their evolution and contribution to the spanwise spread. It was found that both these components together aid in the large spanwise spread of the jet. The heat transfer characteristics are studied for the jet flow on a heated isothermal wall. The profiles of mean and fluctuating temperatures, the evolution of the Nusselt number, and turbulent heat flux characteristics are studied. The streamwise evolution of Nusselt number behavior is explained using instantaneous vortical structures. A significant drop in heat transfer is observed in the potential core region. Further, the turbulent heat flux contours show that the transport of heat in the streamwise direction is different from that of the plane wall jet. A peculiar turbulent heat transport was found in the analysis of the spanwise heat flux. The heat transfer characteristics noted for the three-dimensional wall jet may help in the design and analysis of film-cooling applications.