Indexed on: 29 May '15Published on: 29 May '15Published in: Analytical Chemistry
An improved understanding of a filler’s surface properties is important for determining the most effective polymer reinforcement fillers. In this work, the surface characteristics of two biofillers, namely, clam shell modified by hydrochloric acid (AMF) and furfural (FMF), were investigated using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The IGC results showed that the dispersive surface energy (γ(S)(D)) contributed the major part to the total surface energy for the biofillers. The values changed as a function of surface coverages, meaning that both samples were energetically fairly heterogeneous. The γ(S)(D) calculated with the Dorris–Gray method was larger than that calculated with the Schultz method, with a γ(S,Dorris–Gray)(D)/γ(S,Schultz)(D) ratio of 1.10. Compared to AMF, FMF possessed higher γ(S)(D) value; however, this difference was compensated by specific (acid–base) surface energy (γ(S)(AB)). Both samples predominantly interacted with ethanol and acetonitrile, implying an amphoteric nature of the material surfaces. Gutmann acid and base number profiles indicated that the surfaces of both samples were more basic in nature. The FMF showed a lower total work of cohesion (W(Coh)(total)) value compared to the AMF, which could lead to an increase in composite performance.