Indexed on: 07 Jun '13Published on: 07 Jun '13Published in: Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
Fatty acids influence human health and diseases in various ways. In recent years, much work has been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids control short-term and long-term cellular functions. We have reviewed herein the most recent studies on modulation of gene expression by fatty acids. A number of genes respond to transcription factors and present a transcription factor response element in their promoter regions. Fatty acids may exert their effects on metabolism by regulating gene transcription via transcription factors. Understanding how fatty acids control expression of metabolic genes is a promising strategy to be investigated by aiming to treat metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Fatty acids exert many of their biological effects through the modulation of the activity of transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and liver X receptors.Fatty acid action through transcription factors controls the expression of several inflammatory and metabolic genes.