Indexed on: 20 Mar '12Published on: 20 Mar '12Published in: Thrombosis Research
Factor XIII is a coagulation factor with multiple plasmatic and cellular functions part of which is outside of the field of traditional hemostasis. The aim of the review is to provide a brief summary on the relationship between coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) and the cells of the immune system. In the first part the structure and biochemical functions of plasma and cellular FXIII are briefly summarized. Then, the interaction between leukocytes and factor XIII is discussed. This part includes the activation of FXIII by human neutrophil elastase, the down-regulation of activated FXIII (FXIIIa) by granulocyte proteases within the clot, and the effect of FXIIIa on leukocytes. In the following part data on the expression and subcellular distribution of FXIII in monocytes/macrophages are summarized. Another part of the review is devoted to changes of FXIII expression during monocyte differentiation and monocyte activation by the classical or the alternative pathway. In the final part reports on the possible functions of cellular FXIII in monocytes and macrophages are evaluated.