Exponential separations for one-way quantum communication complexity, with applications to cryptography

Research paper by Dmitry Gavinsky, Julia Kempe, Iordanis Kerenidis, Ran Raz, Ronald de Wolf

Indexed on: 13 Feb '08Published on: 13 Feb '08Published in: Quantum Physics


We give an exponential separation between one-way quantum and classical communication protocols for a partial Boolean function (a variant of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem of Bar-Yossef et al.) Earlier such an exponential separation was known only for a relational problem. The communication problem corresponds to a \emph{strong extractor} that fails against a small amount of \emph{quantum} information about its random source. Our proof uses the Fourier coefficients inequality of Kahn, Kalai, and Linial. We also give a number of applications of this separation. In particular, we show that there are privacy amplification schemes that are secure against classical adversaries but not against quantum adversaries; and we give the first example of a key-expansion scheme in the model of bounded-storage cryptography that is secure against classical memory-bounded adversaries but not against quantum ones.