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Exploring factors influencing pregnant Women's attitudes, perceived subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards male involvement in maternal services utilization: a baseline findings from a community based interventional study from Rukwa, rural Tanzania.

Research paper by Fabiola V FV Moshi, Stephen M SM Kibusi, Flora F Fabian

Indexed on: 21 Oct '20Published on: 21 Oct '20Published in: BMC pregnancy and childbirth



Abstract

Although male involvement enhances obstetric care-seeking behavior, the practice of male involvement in developing countries remains unacceptably low. Male involvement in maternal services utilization can be influenced by the attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control of their female partners. Little is known about factors influencing pregnant women's attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived behavior control towards male involvement in maternal services utilization. A baseline community-based cross-sectional study whose target was pregnant women were performed from 1st June until 30th October 2017. A three-stage probability sampling technique was employed to obtain a sample of 546 pregnant women. A structured questionnaire that hinged the Theory of Planned Behavior was used. The questionnaire explored three main determinants of male involvement, which were: attitudes towards male involvement, perceived subjective norms towards male involvement, and perceived behavior control towards male involvement. After adjusting for the confounders, factors influencing positive attitude towards male involvement were age at marriage [19 to 24 yrs.,(AOR = 1.568 at 95% CI =1.044-2.353), more than 24 yrs. (AOR = 2.15 at 95% CI = 1.150-1.159)]; education status [primary school (AOR = 1.713 at 95% CI = 1.137-2.58)] and economic status [earning more than one dollar per day (AOR = 1.547 at 95% CI = 1.026-2.332)]. Factors influencing perceived subjective norms was only age at marriage [19 to 24 yrs., (AOR = 1.447 at 95% CI = 0.970-2.159), more than 24 years, (AOR = 2.331 at 95% CI = 1.261-4.308)]; factors influencing perceived behavior control were age at marriage [more than 24 years (AOR = 2.331 at 95%CI = 1.261-4.308)], and the intention to be accompanied by their male partners (AOR = 1.827 at 95%CI = 1.171-2.849). The study revealed that women who were married at an older age were more likely to have a positive attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control towards male involvement in maternal services utilization than those who were married at a young age. Pregnant women who had primary education and earn more than a dollar per day were more likely to have positive attitudes towards male involvement than poor and uneducated pregnant women. The study recommends an interventional study to evaluate the influence attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control on male involvement in maternal services utilization.