Exploring a temporal relationship between biofilm microbiota and inflammatory mediators during resolution of naturally-occurring gingivitis.

Research paper by Simon J SJ Stone, Purnima S PS Kumar, Steven S Offenbacher, Peter A PA Heasman, Giles I GI McCracken

Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Journal of periodontology


This study uses multiple, contemporary methodologies to expand our knowledge of the temporal relationship between host-microbial interactions and clinical signs of gingivitis. Subgingival plaque and crevicular fluid samples were collected from 31 systemically healthy adults with naturally occurring plaque-induced gingivitis. Professional prophylaxis was administered and participants were followed over seven weeks. Microbial characterization was performed using a bead-based hybridization assay and cytokine analysis using bead-based flow cytometry. The provision of sequential interventions, oral hygiene instruction and subsequent professional prophylaxis brought about significant reduction of plaque and resolution of gingivitis at all post baseline points baseline (p < 0.0001). Candidate cytokines that increased significantly (95% level) were interleukin (IL)-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, from baseline to week 2; Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) at week 4 and week 8; macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β at week 8. Resolution of inflammation was accompanied by a shift in the microbiological flora towards those species associated with health. This study provides further evidence of the dynamic relationships that exist between the overt clinical signs, the microbial biofilm and the host response in gingivitis and upon resolution following clinical interventions. Understanding the interactions between the host immune system and subgingival microbial communities during the resolution of established gingivitis continues to evolve as additional knowledge is achieved through using new analytical technologies. The present study confirms a critical effect of oral hygiene measures on restoration of microbial eubiosis in subgingival communities, confirming the important role for home care and professional intervention in maintaining oral health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.