Experimental Cryptographic Verification for Near-Term Quantum Cloud Computing

Research paper by Xi Chen, Bin Cheng, Xinfang Nie, Nengkun Yu, Man-Hong Yung, Xinhua Peng

Indexed on: 22 Aug '18Published on: 22 Aug '18Published in: arXiv - Quantum Physics


Recently, there are more and more organizations offering quantum-cloud services, where any client can access a quantum computer remotely through the internet. In the near future, these cloud servers may claim to offer quantum computing power out of reach of classical devices. An important task is to make sure that there is a real quantum computer running, instead of a simulation by a classical device. Here we explore the applicability of a cryptographic verification scheme that avoids the need of implementing a full quantum algorithm or requiring the clients to communicate with quantum resources. In this scheme, the client encodes a secret string in a scrambled IQP (instantaneous quantum polynomial) circuit sent to the quantum cloud in the form of classical message, and verify the computation by checking the probability bias of a class of ouput strings generated by the server. We implemented the scheme on a 5-qubit NMR quantum processor in the laboratory and a 5-qubit and 16-qubit processors of the IBM quantum cloud. We found that the experimental results of the NMR processor can be verified by the scheme with about $2\%$ error, after noise compensation by standard techniques. However, the fidelity of the IBM quantum cloud was too low to pass the test (about $42\%$ error). This verification scheme shall become practical when servers claim to offer quantum-computing resources that can achieve quantum supremacy.