Exercise-associated hyponatremia: the influence of pre-exercise carbohydrate status combined with high volume fluid intake on sodium concentrations and fluid balance.

Research paper by Kimberly A KA Hubing, John T JT Bassett, Laura R LR Quigg, Melody D MD Phillips, James J JJ Barbee, Joel B JB Mitchell

Indexed on: 04 Nov '10Published on: 04 Nov '10Published in: European Journal of Applied Physiology


To evaluate the effect of hydration and carbohydrate (CHO) status on plasma sodium, fluid balance, and regulatory factors (IL-6 & ADH) during and after exercise; 10 males completed the following conditions: low CHO, euhydrated (fluid intake = sweat loss) (LCEH); low CHO, dehydrated (no fluid) (LCDH); high CHO, euhydrated (HCEH); and high CHO, dehydrated (HCDH). Each trial consisted of 90-min cycling at 60% VO(2) max in a 35°C environment followed by 3-h rehydration (RH). During RH, subjects received either 150% of sweat loss (LCDH & HCDH) or an additional 50% of sweat loss (LCEH and HCEH). Blood was analyzed for glucose, IL-6, ADH, and Na(+). Post-exercise Na(+) was greater (p < 0.001) for LCDH and HCDH (141.7 + 0.72 and 141.6 + 0.4 mM) versus LCEH and HCEH (136.4 + 0.6 and 135.9 + 0.3 mM). Post-exercise IL-6 was similar in all conditions, and post-exercise ADH was greater (p = 0.01) in dehydrated versus euhydrated conditions. The rate of urine production was greater in HCEH (7.59 + 3.0 mL/min) compared to all other conditions (3.86 + 2.2, 5.29 + 3.1, and 2.96 + 1.1 mL/min for LCDH, LCEH, and HCDH, respectively). Despite CHO and hydration manipulations, no regulatory effects of IL-6 and ADH on plasma [Na(+)] were observed. With euhydration during exercise and additional fluid consumed during recovery, a high-CHO status increased urinary output during recovery, and it decreased the frequency of hyponatremia (Na(+) < 135 mM). Therefore, a high-CHO status may provide some protection against exercise-associated hyponatremia.