Indexed on: 30 Oct '20Published on: 30 Oct '20Published in: International journal of molecular sciences
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus associated with diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. To gain insight into the evolution and adaptation of TGEV, a comprehensive analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias was performed. The phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference displayed two distinct genotypes: genotypes I and II, and genotype I was classified into subtypes Ia and Ib. The compositional properties revealed that the coding sequence contained a higher number of A/U nucleotides than G/C nucleotides, and that the synonymous codon third position was A/U-enriched. The principal component analysis based on the values of relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) showed the genotype-specific codon usage patterns. The effective number of codons (ENC) indicated moderate codon usage bias in the TGEV genome. Dinucleotide analysis showed that CpA and UpG were over-represented and CpG was under-represented in the coding sequence of the TGEV genome. The analyses of Parity Rule 2 plot, ENC-plot, and neutrality plot displayed that natural selection was the dominant evolutionary driving force in shaping codon usage preference in genotypes Ia and II. In addition, natural selection played a major role, while mutation pressure had a minor role in driving the codon usage bias in genotype Ib. The codon adaptation index (CAI), relative codon deoptimization index (RCDI), and similarity index (SiD) analyses suggested that genotype I might be more adaptive to pigs than genotype II. Current findings contribute to understanding the evolution and adaptation of TGEV.