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Evolution of proviral DNA HIV-1 tropism under selective pressure of maraviroc-based therapy.

Research paper by Silvia S Baroncelli, Clementina Maria CM Galluzzo, Liliana Elena LE Weimer, Maria Franca MF Pirillo, Anna A Volpe, Alessandra A Mercuri, Albertina A Cavalli, Vincenzo V Fragola, Laura L Monno, Anna A Degli Antoni, Nicoletta N Ladisa, Daniela D Francisci, Raffaella R Bucciardini, Marco M Floridia

Indexed on: 01 Mar '12Published on: 01 Mar '12Published in: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy



Abstract

To evaluate the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in proviral DNA of patients during maraviroc-based therapy.Fourteen heavily high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with a CCR5 Trofile profile were monitored over a 24 month period from the start of maraviroc therapy. Whole-blood samples were obtained at different timepoints, and coreceptor tropism was determined for proviral DNA from the V3-loop region sequence using the Geno2Pheno algorithm [false positive rate (FPR): 20%].At the start of maraviroc treatment, 13/14 patients were viraemic (median: 4.33 log copies/mL). Concordance in R5 tropism (R5/R5) was observed between circulating HIV-RNA (Trofile) and HIV-DNA provirus in 10/14 patients (median FPR = 54.0%), while 4 patients showed a CXCR4-tropic R5/X4 variant in their provirus (FPR: 5.8%, 5.7%, 16.6% and 1.1%, respectively). All R5/R5 patients showed a stable HIV-1 DNA coreceptor usage. Two out of four R5/X4 patients showed a tropism shift in their archived provirus and, after 6 months a prevalence of R5-tropic virus was detected in DNA. The other two R5/X4 patients harboured the 11/25 genotype, and maintained X4 tropism in provirus during the study. Virological response did not reveal differences in RNA decay and CD4+ cell recovery in patients with discordant tropism.A relatively good correlation between RNA and DNA tropism was observed at baseline. Proviral DNA tropism remained stable over 24 months of maraviroc-based therapy, indicating that determination of proviral DNA V3 sequence could be used in tropism prediction in clinical practice. The data also confirm the importance of the 11/25 rule in predicting viral tropism.

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