Indexed on: 05 May '11Published on: 05 May '11Published in: Chronobiology international
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationships between eveningness, sleep patterns, measures of daytime functioning, i.e., sleepiness, sleep problem behaviors, and depressed mood, and quality of life (QOL) in young Israeli adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was performed in urban and rural middle schools in Northern Israel. Participants were 470 eighth and ninth grade middle school students (14 ± 0.8 yrs of age) in the normative school system. Students completed the modified School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form, assessing six subscales of physical, emotional, social, school performance, and psychosocial functioning, plus an addition generated total score. During weekdays and weekends, evening types went to bed later, their sleep latency was longer, their wake-up time was later, and their sleep duration was shorter than intermediate and morning types. Evening types exhibited more sleep problem behaviors, sleepiness, depressed mood, and lower QOL compared to intermediate and morning types. Based on the regression model, sleepiness, sleep-problem behaviors, and depressed mood were the variables most strongly associated with QOL, followed by morning-evening preference, weekday sleep duration, and weekend sleep latency. This study is the first to assess QOL in normative, healthy adolescents and to demonstrate strong associations between morning-evening preference and QOL. These findings enhance the need to identify young individuals with an evening preference, and to be aware of the characteristics and manifestations of the evening chronotype on daytime and nighttime behaviors in adolescence.