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Evaluation of hemodynamic responses in head injury patients with transcranial doppler monitoring

Research paper by D. W. Newell, R. Aaslid, R. Stooss, R. W. Seiler, H. J. Reulen

Indexed on: 01 Sep '97Published on: 01 Sep '97Published in: Acta Neurochirurgica



Abstract

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can monitor middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity which can be recorded simultaneously with other physiologic parameters such as end tidal (Et) CO2, arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure (ICP), in head injured patients. Relative changes in MCA velocity can be used to reflect relative MCA blood flow changes during ICP waves, and also to evaluate cerebral autoregulation, CO2 reactivity and hemodynamic responses to mannitol and barbiturates. The utility and practicality of short intervals of TCD monitoring to evaluate hemodynamic resposnes, was evaluated in a group of 22 head injured patients (average Glasgow coma score 6). During ICP A waves, MCA velocity always decreased during the peak of the wave, and during ICP B waves, fluctuated synchronously with the ICP. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation, and reactivity to CO2, were reduced within 48 hours of admission. Impaired cerebral autoregulation within 48 hours of admission did not correlate with outcome at 1 month. Mannitol infusion caused an increase in MCA velocity (15.4 ± 7.9%) which was significantly correlated to the impairment of dynamic autoregulation (r=0.54, p < 0.0001). The MCA velocity response to a test dose of barbiturates was significantly correlated to the ICP (r=0.61, p < 0.01) response as well as to the CO2 reactivity (r=0.37, p < 0.05).Continuous MCA velocity monitoring using TCD may be useful in evaluating a variety of hemodynamic responses in head injury patients and may replace more cumbersome cerebral blood flow techniques which have been used in the past for these purposes.