Environmental sampling for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets, Indonesia.

Research paper by Risa R Indriani, Gina G Samaan, Anita A Gultom, Leo L Loth, Sri S Irianti, Sri S Indryani, Rma R Adjid, Ni Luh Putu Indi NL Dharmayanti, John J Weaver, Elizabeth E Mumford, Kamalini K Lokuge, Paul M PM Kelly, Darminto

Indexed on: 03 Dec '10Published on: 03 Dec '10Published in: Emerging infectious diseases


To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in ≥ 1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird markets.

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