Enumeration and Generating Functions of Differential Rota–Baxter Words

Research paper by Li Guo, William Y. Sit

Indexed on: 11 Jan '11Published on: 11 Jan '11Published in: Mathematics in Computer Science


In this paper, the methods and results in enumeration and generation of Rota–Baxter words in Guo and Sit (Algebraic and Algorithmic Aspects of Differential and Integral Operators (AADIOS), Math. Comp. Sci., vol. 4, Sp. Issue (2,3), 2011) are generalized and applied to a free, non-commutative, non-unitary, ordinary differential Rota–Baxter algebra with one generator. A differential Rota–Baxter algebra is an associative algebra with two operators modeled after the differential and integral operators, which are related by the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Differential Rota–Baxter words are words formed by concatenating differential monomials in the generator with images of words under the Rota–Baxter operator. Their totality is a canonical basis of a free, non-commutative, non-unitary, ordinary differential Rota–Baxter algebra. A free differential Rota–Baxter algebra can be constructed from a free Rota–Baxter algebra on a countably infinite set of generators. The order of the derivation gives another dimension of grading on differential Rota–Baxter words, enabling us to generalize and refine results from Guo and Sit to enumerate the set of differential Rota–Baxter words and outline an algorithm for their generation according to a multi-graded structure. Enumeration of a basis is often a first step to choosing a data representation in implementation of algorithms involving free algebras, and in particular, free differential Rota–Baxter algebras and several related algebraic structures on forests and trees. The generating functions obtained can be used to provide links to other combinatorial structures.